Choosing mushrooms: edible, poisonous, good practices

Choosing mushrooms: edible, poisonous, good practices

Greater than sixty poisonings on account of mushrooms have been recorded since September 1, 2022. Final yr, 4 individuals died on account of confusion between an edible species and a poisonous species. Suggestions.

[Mise à jour le 12 septembre 2022 à 13h29] The climate situations of latest days have favored the expansion of mushrooms and the primary amateurs have already gone selecting. However beware ! “Because the starting of September, poisonings reported to poison management facilities have elevated: greater than sixty instances have already been recognized” alerts the Nationwide Company for the Security of Medicines (ANSES) in a press launch dated September 8, 2022 In 2021, 4 individuals died following the confusion of an edible species with a poisonous species; 1,269 poisonings have been reported to poison management centres; 15 younger kids have been poisonedone in all them needed to profit from a liver transplant. Whether or not you’re a connoisseur or an occasional picker, keep alert and comply with good practices for secure consumption.” Sensible recommendation.

What’s the checklist of edible mushrooms?

Among the many edible mushrooms:

  • The mushrooms : Orange Bolete (Leccinum orantiacum), Crimson Bolete (Leccinum floccopus), Pale Bolete (Boletus luridus)…
  • Ceps : Bordeaux boletus, edible boletus (Boletus edulis), fir boletus (Boletus pinophilus), bronze boletus (Boletus aereus)
  • milk caps : Pitch-colored Milkcap (Lactarius picinus), Blood Milkcap (Lactarius sanguifluus); Wine milk cap…
  • the russules : Nice Russula (Russula cyanoxantha), Outdated Rose Russula (Russula vesca), Inexperienced Russula (Russula virescens)…
  • button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)
  • Agarics
  • The parasol mushrooms and lepiotes (Macrolepiota procera): Ragged Lepiote (Chlorophyllum rhacodes)…
  • Hygrophores: Wooden hygrophore (Hygrophorus nemoreus)…
  • Tricholomas: Pigeons (Tricholoma columbetta), Pied-bleu (Lepista nuda)…
  • Oyster mushrooms
  • Chanterelles
  • Sheep’s toes
  • Morels: conical morels (Morchella elata), blond morels (Morchella esculenta)…
Boletus edulis or “Cèpe de Bordeaux” © 123rf

What are good practices when selecting mushrooms?

  • Solely acquire mushrooms that you already know completely nicely: some extremely poisonous toxic mushrooms are similar to edible species.
  • Gather solely specimens in good situation and take your complete fungus (stem and cap) to permit identification.
  • Don’t choose mushrooms close to probably polluted websites (roadsides, industrial areas, landfills).
  • Separate the mushrooms by species harvested to keep away from mixing items of toxic mushrooms with edible mushrooms.
  • Place the mushrooms individuallyin a crate or cardboard field, however by no means in a plastic bag which accelerates rotting.
  • Don’t eat mushrooms recognized solely by way of a recognition software mushrooms on smartphone, because of the excessive threat of error.
  • {Photograph} your selecting earlier than cooking.

By no means feed mushrooms to younger kids.

After selecting:

  • If unsure in regards to the situation or identification of one of many mushrooms harvested, don’t eat the harvest earlier than having it checked by a specialist. Pharmacists or mycology associations and societies in your space may be consulted.
  • Wash fingers totally after harvest.
  • Generally, mushrooms ought to be eaten in small portions, nicely cooked.
  • By no means eat wild-picked mushrooms uncooked.
  • By no means feed the mushrooms you may have picked to younger kids.
  • The cooking time for mushrooms varies relying on the mode (20 to Half-hour within the pan, quarter-hour in boiling water).

What to do in case of doubt a couple of fungus?

Watch out for digital functions that supply recognition techniques. They aren’t at all times dependable. If unsure in regards to the identification of one of many mushrooms harvested, don’t eat the harvest earlier than having it checked by a specialist within the discipline: pharmacist or mycology affiliation. The MycoFrance affiliation lists the checklist of toxic and edible mushrooms. ANSES recommends taking a photograph of the mushrooms earlier than cooking them: it may show helpful within the occasion of meals poisoning. To notice that the stem of some mushrooms is just not at all times edible.

  • Retailer the mushrooms within the fridge (most 4°C) avoiding contact with different meals and consuming them inside two days of selecting.
  • Eat mushrooms in affordable portions after a ample cooking time (20 to Half-hour in a frying pan or quarter-hour in boiling water) and by no means eat uncooked wild mushrooms.
  • By no means supply picked mushrooms to younger kids. Be sure they do not put a fungus within the backyard or schoolyard of their mouth.

Mushrooms ought to at all times be nicely cooked. For the preparation of edible mushrooms, a cooking for a minimum of quarter-hour is really useful to destroy microorganisms and parasites prone to contaminate selecting or harvesting. All mushrooms with the character of uncooked toxic, that’s, together with a heat-labile toxin, ought to be pan-fried for 20-Half-hour in order to succeed in a core temperature of 70°C or boiling water at 100°C for quarter-hour. On this case, it is strongly recommended to discard the cooking water. For customers, it is strongly recommended to eat the mushroom in excellent freshness, and in affordable amount and frequency, of 150 to 200 grams of recent mushrooms per grownup per week.

Signs often start to seem inside 12 hours after consumption.

What signs in case of poisoning?

The indicators in case of poisoning may be roughly critical relying on the kind of mushroom consumed and the amount ingested. These are sometimes digestive problems (diarrhea, vomiting, nausea), typically tremors, dizziness, visible disturbances, liver injury in some instances may be deadly. “Signs often start to seem inside 12 hours after consumption and the intoxicated particular person’s situation can worsen quickly“, signifies ANSES on its web site.

What to do in case of poisoning?

For those who discover the looks of a number of of those signs following the consumption of mushrooms collected within the wild, instantly name 15 or 112 or the poison management middle closest to you. It is extremely essential to say to your interlocutor that you’ve got eaten mushrooms, specify the time of the final meal, the time of onset of the primary indicators in addition to a exact description of the signs.

Two reflexes: {Photograph} your selecting earlier than cooking! The photograph shall be helpful to the toxicologist on the poison management middle within the occasion of poisoning, to information you in the direction of essentially the most appropriate therapy. And maintain leftovers to permit higher identification of the species.

Numbers of Poison Management Facilities 24/24 – 7/7

ANGERS : 02 41 48 21 21 MARSEILLES : 04 91 75 25 25
BORDEAUX : 05 56 96 40 80 NANCY : 03 83 22 50 50
LILLE : 08 00 59 59 59 PARIS : 01 40 05 48 48
LYONS : 04 72 11 69 11 TOULOUSE : 05 61 77 74 47

Sources:

The mushroom season has began, be vigilant! ANSES, September 8, 2022

Record of cultivated and wild edible mushrooms based mostly on an ANSES opinion of April 4, 2017

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